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在职硕士英语复习:一致关系要点分析

作者:火学在职研究生  发布时间:2013-10-21  来源:火学网

   一致关系包括主语与谓语,代词与所指代的名词必须在人称、数、性等方面保持一致。

  (一)主谓一致

  主谓一致指的是谓语动词必须和主语保持一致,现将开始中经常出现的几种主谓一致情况归纳如下。

  1.在名词/代词+介词短语作主语中,谓语动词的单复数不受这些短语的影响。

  together with along with as well as accompanied by

  no less than rather than more thanas much as

  She as well as the other students has learned how to install this electric equipment.她和其他同学一样,也学会了如何安装这种电器设备。

  She, as much as her parents, was responsible for the matter.

  The boy, more than anyone else, is fatter.

  My license rather than my credit cards was lost.

  2.在one+in/of/out of等引导的结构中,一般采用语法一致原则,动词用单数。

  One of the most interesting stories was told by a boy of eight.

  One out of ten is certainly wrong.

  3.在one of +复数名词+定语从句中,常采用就近一致原则,除非one前有 the only/ exactly/ very等副词。

  She is one of the best students who have been praised.

  He is the only one of the men who knows her.

  4.由each… and…., every… and…, each… and…each…, every… and every…作主语时,动词用单数。

  Every man and (every) woman in the village is a faithful supporter of the economic reform. 这个村的每一个男女村民都是经济改革的忠实支持者。

  5.表示时间、距离、重量、金钱或计量的复数名词,当句子的意思是指总数时,动词用单数。

  Three pints isn’t enough for me to drink.

  Four thousand pounds is a large sum. (Thousands of/millions of …. + 复数动词)

  6.a lot of (lots of), the majority of + 单数名词,动词用单数,接复数名词,动词用复数。

  A lot of money has been saved up.

  Lots of problems are caused by unemployment.

  The majority of the damage is easier to repair.

  The majority of people believe smoking is harmful to health.

  7.a large quantity of + 单数名词+单数动词

  a large quantity of + 复数名词+复数动词

  但great/large/huge/quantities of + 不可数名词+复数动词

  Quantities of food were on the table.

  There is only a small quantity of money left.

  8.Many a … 或more than one + 单数名词+单数动词(many a… and many a…; every… and every …; each …and each… + 单数动词)

  There is more than one possible explanation.

  Many a plant and many an animal has been divided.

  During the Second World War, every man and every woman and every child in that village was killed by Japanese soldiers. 在第二次世界大战时期,这村子里的男女老少全被日本鬼子杀害了。

  9.half of/rest of/plenty of + 单数名词或不可数名词+单数动词,而后如为复数名词则动词为复数动词形式。

  Half of our work has been finished.

  Half of the books are English novels.

  10.a portion of, a series of, a flock of, a herd of, a school of等,谓语动词用单数。

  A flock of sheep is on the hillside.

  A portion of the manuscript is illegible. 这手稿的一部分不易辩读。

  There are plenty of natural resources waiting to be explored.

  11.某些集体名词如:cattle, clergy, police, militia, poultry等后面的谓语动词用复数。

  These cattle are from Holland.

  The clergy are opposed to the plan.

  12.English, Chinese, French等指语言时,谓语用单数;指人民时,谓语用复数。

  English is very difficult to learn.

  The Chinese are very hospitable. 中国人十分好客。

  13.在一些固定的习语中and具有with的意义,两个名词表示一个概念。其中,后面的名词不用冠词。在这种情况下,谓语动词用单数。

  the bread brad and butter 奶油面包

  cart and horse 车马

  a needle and threat 一根穿有线的针

  a watch and chain 一只带有链条的手表

  water and salt 盐开水

  the wheel and axle 轮轴

  ham and egg 火腿蛋

  14.非谓语动词(不定式,动名词)、名词从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

  Seeing is believing.

  What can be done has been done.

  注意:在以what 引导的从句为主语的结构中,如果主语补语是复数,谓语动词可采用单数或复数;但当what从句的主语补语和谓语动词均为复数形式时,主句的谓语动词采用复数形式。如:

  What appear to be large windows in the second story are glass heat collectors.

  15.audience, class, committee, company, crew, crowd, government, family, public, team, jury等名词着重指整体谓语动词用单数;强调成员时用复数。

  The football team is playing well.

  The football team are having baths.

  16.machinery, poetry, scenery, population, jewelry, merchandize等谓语动词用单数。

  There is a large population in this country.

  The machinery is driven by electricity.

  (二)代词一致

  1.代词一致是指句子中的代词与相应的限定词在数、性、格等方面保持一致,或者与它相应的名词保持一致。

  One must remember to remain very still when one/he /she attends a concert.

  2.当名称的性无法确定时,阴性与阳性都可使用。

  An average student with average intelligence can be a top student if he/she plans his/her time carefully.

  中等智力水平的学生只要仔细安排他(她)的时间也能成为优等生。

  3.国家、船只等名词常被看作阴性,因此可以用she, her代替。

  China will resolutely and unansweringly carry out her current economic reform.

  中国坚定不移地进行当前的经济改革。

  4.不定代词作主语,代词一般按语法一致原则,用单数。

  each neither one

  everyone everybody

  no one anybody someone

  somebody everything

  anything something nothing either every

  5.在非正式文体或附加疑问句中,当主语是everyone, somebody, nobody时,代词用they. 也可用he.

  Everyone knows what they have to do, don’t they?

  No one was hurt, were they?

  Everyone knows his job, doesn’t he?

  但若用everything, anything, something, nothing 作主语时, 在附加疑问句中,代词通常用it.

  Something should be done, shouldn’t it?

  Nothing will be damaged during the vocation, won’t it?

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